Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases). Superficial staphylococcal pyoderma is a common diagnosis in companion animal practice. Appropriate diagnostic tests, such as skin scrapings, trichogram, fungal culture, and skin biopsy, should be performed to rule out these conditions. It is currently recommended by veterinary dermatologists to treat superficial pyoderma until 1 week after complete clinical resolution of the infection. Epidermal collarettes on the ventral abdomen of a dog. Ideally, samples should be taken from pustules. Your vet will check for parasites and other alternate causes of skin disease. A small scraping of skin is all a vet needs to check for pathogens. Beco L, Guaguère E, Méndez CL, et al. In: Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H, eds. Canine pyoderma is a group of various skin diseases and an accurate diagnosis is mandatory. The typical duration of treatment for superficial pyoderma is 3 to 4 weeks, but more time may be needed. Fourth-tier antimicrobials should not be used in veterinary medicine, particularly with regard to routine cases of superficial pyoderma. Figure 6. Chloramphenicol, rifampin, and aminoglycosides are often last-resort options for MDR staphylococcal infections, mostly due to more severe potential adverse effects. Currently, she is a professor of veterinary dermatology at the University of Minnesota. 1. Battersby I. Equally important is the need for an adequate duration of treatment. Specific antimicrobial guidelines and clinical consensus on treating bacterial skin infections have been developed by the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID, iscaid.org) and the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD, wavd.org) to help veterinarians adequately diagnose and treat pyoderma, using judicious antimicrobial therapy to prevent bacterial resistance.1,2 To treat canine pyoderma successfully, it is important to recognize its clinical signs, confirm the infection, and identify and treat any underlying cause to help prevent pyoderma recurrence. If selected properly, systemic antimicrobial therapy is very effective in cases of canine superficial pyoderma. Vet Dermatol 2017;28(2):171-e36. Loeffler A, Cobb MA, Bond R. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma. The presence of allergic dermatitis, parasites or other sources of skin irritation increase the severity of pyoderma and allow it to resurface even after effective treatment. Itchiness 2. Treatment for Pyoderma consists of antibiotic therapy for a minimum of 3 – 4 weeks. Anecdotal evidence suggests that autogenous bacterins and commercial bacterial antigens (e.g., Staphage Lysate [Delmont Laboratories. ]) Patients with pyoderma should always be reevaluated by the veterinarian, who should not rely solely on the owner’s perception to determine if the bacterial infection has resolved. INDICATIONS OF PYODERMA IN YOUR DOG. and the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD. ) Mucocutaneous pyoderma is considered a surface condition, so topical treatments can be applied to most or all of the affected area. The ISCAID guidelines include clindamycin and lincomycin in the first tier of antimicrobials.1 The author prefers to reserve these agents for second-tier use based on culture and susceptibility testing when other choices, such as cephalosporins, are not options. Bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is a very important diagnostic tool for identification of the bacteria involved and selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy (. Dr. Koch is passionate about comparative dermatology and absolutely enjoys clinical service and teaching. The treatment must be tailored to each patient. Clavamox for Dogs A broad spectrum antibiotic, Clavamox is another prescription-strength drug used to fend off bacterial infections. Your veterinarian will develop a course of treatment depending on the results of her diagnosis. The rise of antimicrobial resistance requires veterinarians to shift their approach in treating bacterial skin infections, particularly in regard to the use and selection of systemic antimicrobials. 3. All animals were housed in single cages at 17–20°C with a 12 h : … Skin infections associated with significant inflammation may benefit from short, limited courses of topicals containing glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone, betamethasone, mometasone, or triamcinolone; however, care should be taken with these products, as chronic use of topical glucocorticoids can induce adverse cutaneous reactions (e.g., atrophic skin, wounds). Accessed November 2020. Deep pyoderma is also relatively common in the dog. Historically, rifampin was used in combination with other antimicrobials (e.g., doxycycline) due to concern with development of fast resistance; however, polyantimicrobial systemic therapy should be avoided due to potential for more resistance. Treatment of superficial pyoderma involves administration of appropriate antibiotics, topical therapy, and addressing underlying factors. Second-tier antimicrobials should always be used based on adequate in vitro susceptibility testing. Pythiosis (Oomycosis, Lagenidiosis, Swamp Cancer, Bursatti, Leeches) in Dogs, Cats and Horses ... Snake Bite Prevention and Treatment for Dogs. Small, raised lesions 6. Treatment of pyoderma is usually aimed at resolving the bacterial infection and addressing the underlying cause, if applicable. For these antimicrobials, increasing the dose increases efficacy but increasing the frequency of administration does not. Figure 1. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are bacteria that demonstrate in vitro resistance to at least 3 antimicrobial classes. It is a staph or other bacterial infection that targets wounds on your dog's skin, resulting in deep or superficial … Additionally, a recent study showed that rifampin, used as monotherapy, was shown to be efficacious in almost 72% of dogs with MDR methicillin-resistant. Moth-eaten alopecia on the dorsum of a dog. Using antibiotics responsibly in companion animals. Diagnosing your dog's pyoderma may require a little laboratory work, but it's usually worth the effort. Anecdotal evidence suggests that autogenous bacterins and commercial bacterial antigens (e.g., Staphage Lysate [Delmont Laboratories, delmontlabs.com] and Propionibacterium acnes [ImmunoRegulin; Neogen Vet animalsafety.neogen.com]) may be used to stimulate immunity against the indicated bacteria and prevent or control pyoderma. This is more serious but fortunately rarer. Pyoderma , which literally means “pus in the skin,” is a common issue in dogs and less common in cats. It is important that the right antibacterial agent is chosen. Multifocal areas of hypotrichotic or alopecic patches (moth-eaten alopecia; ) can also be seen, most commonly in short-coated breeds. It is important to remember that none of the cephalosporins should be used for the treatment of MRS infections, which are resistant to these antimicrobials. Third-tier antimicrobials (fluoroquinolones) should only be used when in vitro susceptibility is demonstrated and first- and second-tier antimicrobials are not effective.7 The author considers these antimicrobials as last options for treating canine pyoderma, unless they need to be selected for safety reasons for the patient. Follow-up visits are very important for evaluation of the response to therapy and to decide when to discontinue the antimicrobial. Your vet may instruct you to apply antiseptic to the infected area or recommend a bathing routine, depending on the location of the lesions. Pyometra in Dogs and Cats. Cytology is also very important for identification of co-infection with other microorganisms such as. These products may also be used for maintenance to help prevent infection in cases of common pyoderma recurrence. Consult with the vet before cleaning the area or applying any other substance to your pet's skin. Ciprofloxacin should not be used because of its reported poor absorption and bioavailability in dogs. Figure 6. Topical antimicrobials were used in most cases. ). Follow your vet's schedule for the antibiotics, even if your pet's symptoms disappear before the treatment's conclusion. If selected properly, systemic antimicrobial therapy is very effective in cases of canine superficial pyoderma. Before antimicrobials are administered, the diagnosis of superficial pyoderma needs to be supported by cytologic findings demonstrating coccoid bacteria, often associated with inflammatory cells (typically degenerate neutrophils) and, when present, bacteria phagocytosis (, ). A contact time of at least 5 to 10 minutes is important for optimal efficacy of antimicrobial shampoos. Skin Fold Dermatitis (Intertrigo) in Dogs, Canine Atopic Dermatitis: Updates on Diagnosis and Treatment. This skin infection can be superficial, which is the most common form of pyoderma in canines, or deep. Cytology is also very important for identification of co-infection with other microorganisms such as Malassezia pachydermatis and, less commonly, rod-shaped bacteria. 2011;169(10):249. To avoid the side effects of commercial drugs, you can always use coconut oil and apple cider vinegar to clear bacterial infections in dogs. Vet Rec. Pustules 4. 2. Quentin Coleman has written for various publications, including All Pet News and Safe to Work Australia. 5. Pyothorax in Dogs and Cats. Papules and pustules on the inguinal and medial thigh area of a dog. You may also find some pimple like pustules on the affected skin. Superficial bacterial pyoderma is one of the most common disorders in the dog. Veterinarians implement stain tests to identify common bacterial culprits so they can prescribe a tailored treatment for the infection. Pustules are quite short lived and not always identified during examination. 1. First-tier antimicrobials are those that can be used empirically (without culture and susceptibility testing in dogs with no or rare previous antimicrobial exposure) for cases of superficial pyoderma. Pyoderma has three different types. Follow-up visits are very important for evaluation of the response to therapy and to decide when to discontinue the antimicrobial. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases). Figure 7. The infection usually occurs secondary to an underlying cause; allergies and endocrine disease are the most common causes (Box 3-3). Superficial bacterial infections are usually to blame, but many additional sources of skin irritation should be considered. When an MRS expresses resistance to at least 2 additional antimicrobial classes, it is also referred to as MDR. 3. British Veterinary Association. Treatment protocol for canine superficial pyoderma. Chloramphenicol and rifampin can be used safely in most dogs; however, close monitoring for potential aplastic anemia and liver toxicity, respectively, is needed. Mucocutaneous pyoderma is a local disorder that often develops alongside other dermatological health issues in dogs. 2013;172(6):156-160. In the author’s opinion, topical fluoroquinolones should not be used empirically and should also be saved for more resistant cases if other topicals are not effective. 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